One of the great difficulties I have encountered in my professional career as a translator was moving from someone who can understand a few languages very well to an actual translator. I never studied translation as a field; instead I worked on my abilities in the languages on my own, especially on creating coherent and concise English compositions. I got work initially by showing people that I could do the job and building a network.
There are maginificent study programs out there in many countries, however, many of which are brought together in this list:
One personal note I have is that Anthony Pym collaborated to list the schools outside of Europe and I have read some of his works to enhance my understanding of translation and he is a brilliant man.